Nepal-India border Problems

Introduction

Geophysics:
Nepal, one of the beautiful nations located on the lap of Himalayas, stretches from east to west. It is sandwiched between the Tibetan autonomous region of the People’s Republic China in the north and the Republic of India in the ray bans sale south, east and west. It is bound by a perimeter of 3,222.88 kilometers(including the disputed areas). Of the total border, 1,414.88 km lies on the borderline with China and 1,808 km length along with the India border. Nepal, a sovereign independent nation, is located in between 800 6″ and 880 14” east longitude. it is almost rectangular in shape. Its average length and width is 800 and 160 kolometers respectively. The total area of tge contry is 1,47,181 Sq.km. Its eastern extremity is 110 kilometers away from the sea.2.
Nepal stopograpyy varies from cloud-capped peaks to basins of different shapes and sizes, from high rolling plateaus to low, broad plains. Great snow capped mountains are found in the north while rivers; streams, lakes, waterfalls and plains lie below. Nepal doesn’t have uniformity in terms of altitude. For instance, the lowest point, Kechana in Jhapa destrict, is about 100 meters above the sea level. The height gradually increases up to 8,848 meters in Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world. The topographical outline is a five step north-south staircase. The mountain regions are the realms of snow peaks popularly known as “Himalayan”, highly charming, wild and pristine, where there is no settlement for miles.
The topography of hilly region, below mountains, is steep and jagged. The Mahabharat regions run closely east to west parallel to the chure hills. The Chure hills are thinly forested and hogback landscape of rugged character, with immature and dry soil. South of Chure hill is a plain belt called Terai of Madesh. The Nepali Terai is a 40 to 50 kolometers broad belt. The area consists mainly of farmlands and decreasing encroached forests. Nepal has a varied climate ranging from the tropical to temperate, alpine and sundry types. The mean temperature is 15.4o c, increasing from north to south and the average rainfall is 1524 mm, decreasing from east to west.
The vegetation in Nepal ranges from tropical luxuriance in the south to treeless rocky terrain in the north. Gradually deforestation is taking place recklessly. On the basis of physiographical condition, Nepal can be divided into five regions. The southern plain covers 14 percent, the Siwalik region with low hills and hillocks 13 percent, the middle mountains 30 percent, and the high mountain region 23 percent of the total area. Of cheap nfl jerseys the Himalayan regions, 14 percent falls under the cover of snow. The sudden rise of altitude from south to north leading to drastic defferences in climate, vegetation, animal habitat and human life-style and dresses of the people are the characteristics of the Nepali topography. As a result, during the same season of the year it is sweltering hot in some places while it is shivering cold at other places.
Human settlement has occupied 18.0, snow and water 18.0, forest 37.6, pastures land 13.4 and rocky steeps, slopes and roads 12.3 percent of the total land. The population of Nepal is 23.2 million, and 14.2 percent live in urban area out of total population. Nine percent of the total population is estimated to be homeless. The literacy rate is 53.7 percent and the per capita GDP is US $ 220 and 38 percent of the entire population is below the poverty line.
For the administrative purposes, the country is divided into 5-development regions, 14 zones, 75 districts, 58 municipalities, and 3913 village Development Committees. Each district, for the purpose of development, is normally divided into 9-17 areas, and the municipalities are divieded into 9 to 35 wards and the nation is divided into 205 constituencies for election purpose. Twenty-six districts of the country are bordered with India and 15 others with China. Within the country, Inhabited by four varnas and over 61 ethnic communities and 36 castes, there are various internal boundaries such as geographical and border lines for social development and land use pattern.
The demarcation and the erection of border pillars on the Nepal-China borderline, and the third phase of periodic supervision and maintenance of the border pillars have been accomplished. But with India event the Preliminary demarcation of the border, delineated by the Sugauli Treaty of 1816 and other supplementary treaties that started 22 years ago, is Wholesale NFL Jerseys yet ot be completed. The work of demarcation of boundary line with India has neither stopped nor been completed. The borderline, which has entanglements in so many places, often tries to find solutions but it entangles itself again and again. However, the boundary business with India will surely be completed in future since it has been already completed with ray bans sale china.

Bisal Nepal
History is proof that at one time the boundary of Nepal had extended up to Tista River in the East, tof Kangara across Sutlej River in the west, to the confluence of Ganga and Jumuna River in the Kopfkissenbezug south, and to Shigatshe and Tashilhunpo Gomba across the Himalayas in the north. The western order spread to Sutlej, to the mid-plains of the Ganges in the south, touching the present day Bangladesh in the east.
However, because of the Sugauli Treaty of 1815/16, Nepal had to lose its larger territory. Resultantly, the real boundary contracted from the Tista and Sutlej to Mechi River in the east and Mahakali River in the west. Similarly, southern boundary shifted from the mid-plains of the Ganges to the Siwalik Range and the plains, a narrow strip of the Terai. The northern border was also reduced to watershed of the Himalayan Range in the north despite the fact that the Sugauli Treaty of 4 March 1816 and Supplementary Treaties had already fixed greater Nepal’s borderline.
Watershed of the Himalayan Range is fixed the northern borderline in accordance with the Nepal-China Boundary Protocol of 20 January, 1963. Nepasl’s 1,415 kolometer east-west length prior to 1816 is reduced to 885 kolometer. The area of the Bishal Nepal is reduced from 2,04,917 to 1,47,141 square kilometer. Therefore, India has to return 57,776 sq.km. to Nepal. To the contrary, India has been ceaselessly encroaching into the remaining territory of present Nepal.
Nepal was even bigger when the country’s boundaries had extended from Tista in the east to Kangara in the West and to the confluence of the river Ganges and Yamuna in the south. The total perimeter was 5,119 kilometers, east-west length 1415 km and the total area 267,575 square kilometers. But the modern Nepal has and encircled boundary line of 3,222.88 kilometers and area of 147,181 square kilometers.’
The above-mentioned boundaries, claims and counter-claims, intrusions and controversies have not been finalized yet because of border encroachments, So, India’s positive attitude is essential to reach Nepal-India Boundary Protocol logical conclusion once the demarcation of the border points with India is completed. The southern borderline runs through fertile plains, jungles and rivers while the northern borderline through the high peaks, mountains, deuralis, gorges and the pasturelands. In the east, the Mechi River and the watershed of Singhalila Range, hills and hillocks stand as the borderline, and the Mahakali River in the west.
Of the Nepal’s adjoining borders with India, 1213 km occupies land and the remaining 595 kilometers river boundary. For instance, 60 big and small rivers and rivulets demarcate the border between Nepal and India. Of these rivers, the most important are the mechi in the east and mahakali in the west. It should be noted that Nepal’s territory still lies across these two rivers.

Sino-Indo-Nepal Relation:
1. Both India and Nepal are independent and sovereingn countries. The unique relationship between these two countries is based not only on diplomatic and political level but also on the level of common people. Nepal is the only Hindu kingdom in the world. In India, eighty percent people adhree to Hinduism. The People’s Republic of China in the north is the adherent of Buddhism, which Hindu considers a wing of Hinduism. Buddhists make pilgrimages to Lumbini, the birth place of Lord Buddha. The people of India regard Kathmandu and His majesty as their religious capital and king respectively. Nepalese people while performing religious ceremony chant the famous Sanskrit adage “Aryavarte Bharat Varshe”, believing that India is their own religious home. Similarly, the geographical proximilty holds a unique significance as Nepal lies to the north of the Himalaya and all the rivers from Nepal flow towards India. Thus, it is customary to have more transction of industry and trade sectors because of geographical structure. People term the geographical proximity and trade relationship as unique relation. Correspondence, understanding treaties and agreements in many spheres- industry, trade, transit and amity- are held between these two countries. fake oakleys Out of them, only the question of the treaty and agreement related to open border between these two countries is discussed in thes chapter.
2. The present India is the unification of dozens of small free and independent kingdoms and principalities, The English people, having entered India in the name of East India Company, founded a greater India by integrating those small kingdoms and principalities. In thes sense, India is highly indebted to the British. Besides the present India, the British frequently waged war to absorb Nepal. However, the British had to bear defeat in every war. India even after the abandonment of the British did not give up its colonial character. Consequently, Goa, Daman, Dyuk, Hydrabad, Zammu, Kasmir and Sikkim were annexed into India. Bhutan has been semi-colonized, whereas Nepal has remained independent throughout the history.
Nepal has been subjected to incessant interference of India right after the 1950’s amity treaty. If Nepal cannot free from it, it will be impossible for Nepalis people to have their economic and social prosperity. Similarly, it is difficult for them to make their own plans and decisions by preserving their sovereignty.
3. The peace ad amity treaty held between Nepal and India in 1950 proposes open border system between these two countries. Because of the open border, the citizens travel from one country to another without visa, and any record. The open border has resulted in various problems. Thus, it is essential to put forth issues such as Indo-Nepal border disputes, interprentation/revision/cancellation of 1950’s peace and amity treaty, the positions of Nepal and India among SAARC countries, interests between two countries, resulted from 1950’s treaty. In addition, the undecided question of greater Nepal is necessary to analyze and identify the absurdities created by open border:

-Dr.Shastra Dutta Pant

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